n on the serfs and slaves. €About 90 percent of old Tibet's populati

on was made up of serfs, called tralpa in Tibetan (namely, people who till

ed plots of land assigned to them and had to provide corvee labor fo

tent. Miserable life

r their serf owners) and duiqoin (small households with chimneys emitting smoke). They had no means of production or personal freedom, and only lived on tillin▓g plots for estate-holders for survival. €In addition, nan▓gzan, about 5 percent of the old Tibet's population, were hereditary slaves regarded as "speaking tools." €St

of serfs. (File Photo)€

atistics released in the early years of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) in the 17th century indicate that Tibet then had more than 3 million mu of farmland, of which 30.9 percent was owned by the local ▓feudal government, 29.6 percent by aristocrats, and 39.5 percent by monastery and upper-ranking lamas. €The monopoly of

of the ?/h1>

me▓ans of production by the three major estate-holders remained unchanged unt▓il the adoption of democratic reforms in 1959. €Accor▓ding to statistics, the family of the 14th Dalai Lama possessed ▓27 manors, 30 pastures and more than 6,000 serfs. About 33,000 ke (one ke equals 14 kilograms) of qingke (highland barley), 2,500 ke of butter, two million liang of

Collect from /

y ▓the ce

Tibetan silver, 300 head of ▓cattle, and 175 rolls of pulu (woolen fabric made in Tibet) were squeezed out of its serfs every year. €It is know▓n that each Dalai Lama had two money-lending agencies. Some money from "tribute" to the Da▓lai Lama was lent at an exorbitant rate of interest. €According to incomplete records in the account books of the two agencies, they lent▓ 3,038,581 liang of silver as principal in 1950, an▓d collected 303,858 liang in interest the same year. Governments of various levels in

Event 1
  • Wednesday
    ntral gove3rd September 2084
  • Time
    rnment in 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM
  • Venue X
    1959, TibeLifestyle Mall
    tan peopleYangon, Myanmar
Event 2
  • Thursday
    had suffe7th August 2084
  • Time
    red under 6:30 PM to 9:30 PM
  • New Studio
    a system oWalking Street
    f feudal sMandalay, Myanmar
Event 3
  • Sunday
    erfdom a5th July 2084
  • Time
    t the hand10:00 AM ~ 5:00 PM
  • Digital Hall
    s of religPatong Beach
    ious-politPhuket, Thailand
Event 4
  • Saturday
    ical ruler2nd June 2084
  • Time
    s. €The se11:00 AM to 3:00 PM
  • Open Hall
    rf▓-ownerNight Market
    class, coHua Hin, Thailand

the old Tibet also had many such agencies, and lending money and interest collection beca▓me a duty of local officials. €A survey

made in 1959 showed that the three major mon▓asteries, namely Drepung, Sera and Ganden, in Lhasa, lent a total of 22,725,822 kil▓ogr

nsisting o

ams of grain and collected 399,364 kilograms i

f three ma

n interest. 銆▓€銆€Also, a total of 57,105,895 liang of silver was lent for 1,402,380-liang interest. €Relevant statistics show revenue gained from

usurious loans made up 25 to 30 percent of

jor esta

the total incomes of the three monasteries. €Article sees "indissoluble bond between ▓Dalai Lama, feudal serfdom"BEIJING, M

arch 24 (Xinhua) -- An article to be published W

te-holders -

ed▓nesday in the People's Daily, the Guangming Daily and ot▓her Chinese newspapers under the byline of Yi Duo provides insight into the intricate rela

local a

  • Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium.
  • Excepteur sint occaecat non proident, sunt in.
  • Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in cupidatat voluptate.

tions between the Dalai Lama and feudal serfdom. This year marks the 50t


  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut lado consequat.
  • Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate.
  • Sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

h anniversary of the emancipation of millions of serfs and slaves in old

ive offici

  • Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
  • Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate.
  • Illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo.

Tibet, and the Tibetan regional legislature has endorsed a bill making

als, ari

Blog Post 1

stocrats and upper-class monastery lamas -

March 28 the annual Serfs Emancipation ▓Day in the region. The Dalai Lama and his followers, however, have been attacking the move as "an insult to the Tibetans" and "creating ▓new destabilizing factors." The article said their "emotional reaction" came as no surprise, in light of their inseparable relations with theocratic feudal serfdom in old Tib▓et. Tibet practiced feudal serfdom for hundreds of

years, until 1959. The system, although depicted by some either with ulterior motives or without the slightest knowledge of the old Tibet as a "paradise on Earth," was dark and barbarous as proven by historical facts and documents, it said. In his book "The Unveiling of Lhasa", Edmund Candler, an India-based correspondent of the British newspaper Daily Mail, who entered Tibet with the British army in 1905, said Tibet was then under a feudal serfdom where peasants▓ were slaves of the lamas. Heeven compared the Potala Palace, the residence of Tibetan Buddhist▓ leaders, with the bloodiest medieval castles in Europe in the Middle Ages.▓ Da

Blog Post 2

exerted extremely brutal political suppressio

lai Lama family owned 6,000 serfsA great deal, according to a white paper titled Fifty Years of Democratic Reform in Tibet, recently published by the Information Office of the State Council. Following is ▓an article published in the People's Daily Thursday in response to readers' inquiries: In 1959, the Dalai Lama personally owned 160,000 liang (a Chinese weighing unit equal to 50

grams▓) of gold, 95 million liang of silver, more than 20,000 pieces of jewelry and jadeware, and more than 10,000 pieces of silk and satin fabric and ra▓re fur clothing, including more than 100 robes inlaid with pearls and gems, each worth tens of thousands of yuan. Alge▓ria opens Algiers-Beijing direct flightALGIERS, Feb.▓ 22 (Xinhua) -- Algeria launched its direct flight from A▓lgiers to Beijing Sunday, with the Chinese ambassador among the passengers aboard the inaugural flight. Liu Yuh▓e, Chinese ambass

n and econ

ador to Algeria, said as the two countries just celebrated the 50th anniversary of the establishm▓ent of their diplomatic relations, the regular direct flight serves a new bridge to stren▓gthen the ties between the two countries and t

heir peo

ple. The


ural f

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